NASA Center: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Public Release Year: 1983
Reference Number: JPL-SO-75
Category: Environment And Resource Management
Origin: NASA Solar Energy Conversion Methods
The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The grown&quot; silicon crystals are used to make solar cells or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.&quot;
Page Number in Published book: 102
Manufacturer: CRYSTAL SYSTEMS, INC.